27.1.19 Sunday Chit Chat Who is in charge - 2?

Trade war, Technology war, or war by any other name is just a red herring. The West are most fearful that the world follow the Chinese system of government which to them is "dictatorial". First, let us look at each political system very briefly - their fundamental differences in approach and operations.
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USA
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We look at the state of the situation on the ground in USA. In the USA the three branches of the Federal Government are in charge - Executive Branch, the Legislative Branch and the Judicial Branch.
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a) The President is in charge of the Executive Branch. This branch is to enforce the law passed by Congress. The President has the right of veto a law but the Congress can override the veto. If the President resigns (like Nixon) or dies (like JF Kennedy), the Vice President takes over.
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b) The Legislative Branch which is called Congress, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Its job is to make laws for the Executive branch to enforce. Only Congress can decide to go to war. But this power to decide seems to pass on to the President. For instance, the President decides on regime change for Venezuela, and Congress is silent.
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For the House of Representatives, each of the 50 states are allocated Congressional Districts based on their population, with each district entitled to one representative. Each representative serves for 2 years. Each state has 2 Senate seats elected by the people in the state. The Senators hold office for 6 years and 1/3 are elected every two years. Each senator has one vote in the Senate. Trump won the Presidential election in 2016 but the number of people who voted for him was less than that for Hillary.
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c) The Judicial Branch which includes the Supreme Court and other courts is to interpret the laws.
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These three branches or multicameralism act as checks and balances and work hard together to ensure the Government works efficiently and fairly for the people. The voices of the people are heard when they talk to their Representatives who present their views in Congress. These are supposed to make for an effective government for the people.
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The current situation pitches the Executive branch with the Legislative branch, each trying to prove it is more authoritative. Each hardening its views. No compromise. Also each tries to have their own people in the Judiciary. This causes a lock jam when both refuse to meet half way leading to the shutdown. On Friday, Trump signed off to end the shutdown after two partisan bills to end shutdown failed.
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So this democratic process has caused a political divide. The President feels he is in charge. Congress feels it is in charge. And, everyone is in charge and nobody is in charge.
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Russia
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After the 1905 Revolution, the State Duma or elected legislative assembly (Lower House) was initiated by the Tsar Nicholas II which together with the State Council (Upper House) formed the Russian legislature. This was probably the Russia's first attempt at Parliament system. It did not take off as a set of Fundamental Laws killed the system despite having 4 dumas as the Emperor and Ministers continued to rule by decree. This caused conflict between the Emperor/Ministers and the representatives of the Duma leading to the 1917 Revolution and the abdication of Nicholas II.
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In Russia, head of the government is the President. Before 2012, elected representatives served a 4-year term.
Putin came to power under the new Federal Assembly or National Parliament, created after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. He was barred from a 3rd term by the Constitution in 2008, so his Prime Minister took over as President then and he immediately appointed Putin as Prime Minister, thus switching roles, but maintaining the political dominance.

In 2012, representatives were elected to a 6-year term with a two-term limit. Putin became President in 2012. He appointed the Prime Minister (Dmitry Medvedev) who was confirmed by the DUMA. In 2018, Putin won re-election for his second consecutive term and will serve until 2024.
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There are 450 members in the State Duma and 166 members in the Federation council. Together they form the Federal Assembly. Half of the 450 State Duma members are "Proportional Representatives" which are multi-member constituencies to ensure minority groups are represented. This system is similar to countries like Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Italy and Norway. The Duma passes laws by majority vote and can override Presidential veto by 2/3 majority vote. It also appoints the Prime Minister.
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Current indication is that Putin is in full control of Russia.
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China
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China has a long history of emperors amongst the warring states. Finally in 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang managed to unite China under one rule until the last emperor, Puyi of the Qing Dynasty when he was overthrown by the Kuomintang. In 1949 Mao Zedong defeated the Kuomintang which fled to Taiwan (Formosa).
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Since then, the Communist Party of China is the ruling party. The CPC constitutes the basic party. It works with other parties in discussion and management of the state. It is different from Western countries with multi-party or two-party systems. In China the CPC is the only and basic party.
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In 1954, the first National People's Congress was established together with local congresses at all levels. Its Constitution states that State Power belongs to the people. The people congresses have 4 functions - legislation, supervision, appointment and removal of officials, apart from making major decisions on major issues. The National People's Congress (China's Parliament) consists of 2980 members in 2018, the world largest, serves a 5-year term. Candidates at the lowest People's Assemblies elected their representatives, and at each tier, fewer and fewer candidates are elected to the next higher People's assembly. It is therefore important to gain the support at each tier in order to move higher. At the apex, the Presidium of the National People's Congress consists of 178 members.
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The President is elected by the NPC, China's highest state body which also can remove the President and other state officers from office. Each term is 5-year. In the past, each President served two 5-year terms. At the 19th Congress the NPC did away with this limitation, which means President Xi has no limit to the number of terms.
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China has declared it does not interfere in the domestic affairs of other countries, and is there strictly for business. But the perception of the West is that China is using money to entrap countries into a debt spiral and then take over some valuable assets in return.
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The evolution of each system is often a reaction to some weaknesses or abuses in the past.
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In the end, what newly emerging countries in Latin America and Africa adopt will depend on the alignment of their value systems with one of these three countries.
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Today here we just show the different systems broadly. This is not a political discussion, but an exposition of the different systems, all have their merits. Abraham Lincoln defined "democracy" as "Government of the people, by the people, for the people". As we can see, the central focus is "people". The Russians and the Chinese too have their power source from the support of their peoples. Just that all three use different approaches. There is no right or wrong, good or bad -- each system evolved over time to suit their countries' needs.
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But these are important models. The West and USA wants everyone to follow their democratic system, which includes its value system. Not following is taken to mean the country is not democratic and therefore not acceptable. However on closer look, the Russians and Chinese have their own democratic processes too. Elections and appointments are made with their people in mind.
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These three systems also have subsystems in between. In the end each country has to adopt one that suits it best. For instance, the one-man-one-vote under the democratic system has its weaknesses. In Singapore in 1988 a modified system was in place. Parliament now consists of a mix of Single Member Constituencies and Group Representation Constituencies, the latter to ensure racial minorities are represented in Parliament. Nominated Members of Parliament are added to provide a voice for various segments of society.
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In countries where dictatorial systems are in place, the evolution to allow for voices of the people to be heard will force the leaders to put in place a people's support system because a ruler cannot last very long without the support of the people. 得人心者得天下. Africa especially is emerging from a period of strong dictators and the countries there are watching which of the systems is more suitable for them.
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The political system countries adopt will come with it an embedded value system, a culture and a belief system. We will wait to see how these evolve over time.

In the meantime, US is founded on a war-path footing displayed since the World War 2 ended. It fought 14 wars on other's territories and is now the strongest military in the world. It has dictated that all are either democratic and on the side of the West, or not.

Currently it is calling for regime change in Venezuela as USA sees it as a socialist state despite President Maduro being legally elected. If conflict erupts, the war may turn Latin America into another "Arab Spring" at American's doorstep.
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On the other hand, Russia and China have called for non-interference and restraint.
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This could be another source of uncertainty for investors.
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https://zhidao.baidu.com/question/53355790...
http://al.china-embassy.org/eng/zggk/t5146...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_...

(Note that the above is a general bird's eye view, and if there is any point that should be presented differently, please advise.)
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18 likes
6 comments
Hayashi8

Read the second statement in my post ...I repeat...Read the second statement in my post.
This is going to be fought on the grounds in Venezuela
It is all about Model Of Governance..........
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https://www.cnbc.com/2019/02/01/win-for-de...

KnowNuts

Informative... and sharp. Thanks.

Time711

Thank you for sharing

Incognito

I am saving this.

kk63teh

thank you @Hayashi7 for your exposition. short, sweet, simple and sharp explanation on the democratic political systems of the 3 biggest countries in the world.

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